The foreign policy in Pakistan is decided by the army there. There are armies in other countries as well, but in Pakistan its army is the owner of this country. Unless the Pakistani army is committed, peace with India cannot be established.
Despite all efforts, peace relations could not be established between India and Pakistan.
There have been many opportunities to maintain peace between the bitter relations between India and Pakistan. But every time such opportunities got out of hand. Often, we hear that if Muhammad Ali Jinnah was alive, India-Pakistan relations might have been different. Visualizing the present through the lens of missed opportunities is like looking at things behind the mirror in a car. In which it is cautioned that “objects seen in the mirror can be much different than they appear.”
The chance to establish peace is over
There was an occasion when Sheikh Abdullah, during his visit to Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK) in May 1964, sent a message to Ayub Khan, in which he said that Jawaharlal Nehru had sent Khan to India to discuss peace. Invited to come. Despite the 1948–49 war, at that time both countries allowed their citizens to move across the border. Sheikh reached Muzaffarabad in PoK and was on his way to Rawalpindi to meet Ayub, when he got the news that Nehru had passed away. The death of India’s first Prime Minister rejected this initiative outright. Thirteen months later, India and Pakistan clashed in Kutch and four months later, the 1965 war broke out. This war ended the opportunity to establish peace. Ayub Khan lost his power. After the student rebellion in 1968, Yahya Khan came to power.
Hope was raised by Shimla Agreement
The Simla Agreement after the 1971 war raised hopes of a normalization of relations between the two countries, but a bitter and rebellious Bhutto, who had lost his prestige due to the defeat in the war and was influenced by the army generals, helped Pakistan again. He took them on the path of enmity towards India. At the time of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, India and Pakistan were again sitting on the edge of war. But Zia was a realist, he tried to tour India through cricket diplomacy. But he died in an air crash and with that his plans came to an end. It is said that his fellow generals, who were against his peace offer with India, planted a bomb on this flight. And in this the US Ambassador to Pakistan Arnold Lewis Raphael also died.
End of 40 years of hostilities!
Rajiv Gandhi’s visit to Pakistan for a summit in 1988 was described by Benazir as “the end of 40 years of hostilities”, but both leaders were soon out of power. Atal Bihari Vajpayee took a Lahore bus tour in February 1999 Of. And meeting Nawaz Sharif raised new hopes. But soon, fearing peace between India and Pakistan, Pakistani generals started the Kargil war and blamed Nawaz for the defeat. In November, Musharraf ousted Nawaz from power in a coup.
Musharraf could not convince fellow generals
Musharraf, in his new avatar as a peacekeeper, arrived in India in July 2001 for the Agra summit, but could not persuade his fellow generals to take the initiative forward and the final draft of the agreement could not be signed. Representatives of India and Pakistan Satinder Lamba and Tariq Aziz held back-channel talks and were even ready for a non-paper deal on a solution to Kashmir. But the BJP lost power in 2004, before Vajpayee could carry out his peace campaign. Gave.
Nawaz ousted from power
The Congress was politically intimidated to take forward Vajpayee’s initiative. So the next opportunity came when BJP returned to power in 2014 under the leadership of Narendra Modi. Soon after coming to power, Modi invited Nawaz Sharif to his swearing-in ceremony. And expressed intention to take some concrete steps. After this the Indian Prime Minister made a surprise visit to attend the wedding of Nawaz’s granddaughter. This journey drowned Nawaz. The army weakened Nawaz with anger and suspicion and used the Panama Papers scandal to oust him from power.
So, what do these events tell us?
This shows that the foreign policy in Pakistan is decided by the army there. There are armies in other countries as well, but in Pakistan its army is the owner of this country. Unless the Pakistani army is committed, peace with India cannot be established. Modi’s initiative to help the flooded neighbor and Pakistan’s decision to resume trade with India is unrealistic, at least until the military generals of Rawalpindi understand that their country is in dire straits and Until they decide that the time has come to put Islamabad on the negotiating table.